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124674
22.10.2020 23:38
1
https://www.ft.com/content/3fc282ee-1045-46f4-a...

Miners and banks must take responsibility for emissions
Finance must help put ESG issues at the heart of the mining sector’s business plans

Daniel Hanna and Richard Horrocks-Taylor
Richard Horrocks-Taylor is the Global Head Metals & Mining at Standard Chartered Bank and Daniel Hanna is its Global Head of Sustainable Finance.

Traditional mining and banking business models are both challenged by the planet’s climate emergency and the growing focus from consumers, investors and regulators on environmental, social and governance issues. This is a risk and an opportunity for both sectors.
More frequent severe weather events and rising sea levels bring higher costs and financial losses while the transition to more sustainable business models risks “stranded assets”. These challenges are most acutely faced in emerging markets, which face the biggest risk from climate change.
Both mining and banking must take responsibility for the emissions of our customers. In 2019, Standard Chartered committed to become net zero in its own operations and align our financing activities to the Paris Agreement of keeping global warming substantially below 2 degrees.
This is why we made a public commitment to measure, manage and reduce all our Scope 3 emissions and support our clients transition to lower carbon business models. It is also why we believe the industry needs to follow the example of Anglo American, Vale, Glencore and others in targeting its clients’ emissions as well as its own.
Next year, we will publish our Mining Transition Pathway setting out how banks can work with the sector to become Paris aligned. There are three steps that we are taking now to achieve this.
First, we have a collective challenge to phase out coal in the next decade by scaling renewables and decarbonising steel. Coal accounts for more than 90 per cent, or 4.6 gigatons, of the mining industry’s annual direct, or Scope 1 and 2 emissions. Coal’s use in power generation and steel and aluminium production creates almost three times the Scope 2 emissions, 14.4 gigatons.
Tackling these emissions is an urgent shared challenge. We need to rapidly scale renewables as a source of power, especially to the one billion people who have no access to power in the developing world. Producers, consumers, regulators and the finance industry need to come together to develop a low-carbon alternative to using metallurgical coal. Initiatives such as Net Zero Steel are positive but need to be accelerated.
Second, finance needs to help the industry put ESG at the heart of its business plans. Recent issues around tailings dams and local community rights have highlighted its importance. Emerging issues such as biodiversity also need to be considered. More importantly, mining itself is also heavily affected by climate risk.
Its activities are resource intensive, often located in regions that are particularly vulnerable to rising temperatures, more extreme weather incidents, and water shortages. As banks develop climate risk capabilities, and crucially, climate and emissions data, this can be used to support strategic asset selection, assess the emissions profiles of activities, and the risk from extreme weather events. The industry is not sitting still. BHP is switching several sites to 100 per cent renewables and others such as Anglo, First Quantum, Rio Tinto and Vale are ramping up.
Third, we believe in the case for strategic investment into the mining industry. Divestment is not the answer; engagement is.
We will not drive a more sustainable future without the minerals that underpin clean tech and are likely to see demand for copper, graphite, lithium and cobalt grow between 250 and 500 per cent in the coming years. Consultants at Wood Mackenzie believe the industry will need to invest $240bn in base metals and gold over the next five years.
Electrification and switching to clean tech, exploring methane and carbon capture, hydrogen based or other low-carbon steel and aluminium production and a much greater focus on recycling or the circular economy will all require new investment. The initiative from the London Metal Exchange to explore scrap and low-carbon contracts is a positive development.
China’s announcement that it will become net zero by 2060 is a game changer for the industry. As the world’s biggest importer of iron ore and many other minerals, its demand sets many of the terms of trade for the mining industry.
Beijing’s pledge and that of other governments underline why transitioning the mining industry is urgent. What may have been seen as difficult a couple of years ago, is becoming received wisdom. The focus on sustainability is rapidly accelerating and no one can ignore its implications.



https://www.lapresse.ca/affaires/portfolio/2020...

Sotrem-Maltech: mission, save aluminum from landfill

Recover "aluminum waste" to avoid overloading landfills: such is the corporate mission that the Sotrem-Maltech firm set itself, ten years ago, and which is profitable today. hui important dividends.

Posted on October 22, 2020 at 11:30 a.m.
Yvon Laprade

"It is not without reason that the number of employees in our factories has gone from 50 [in 2010] to 250 today," says Patrick Dubé, director of commercial affairs. The recycling market [for aluminum] is growing strongly. We grow with our [business] customers. "

He adds: “We're sort of a catalyst between primary smelters, processors and the scrap aluminum market. Through our processes, and our recycling methods, we give a second life to this light metal, which is infinitely recyclable. "

Patrick Dubé argues that the Aluminum Valley SME has made the right choices by developing technologies to “recast and requalify” consumer aluminum products.

“We have moved to step 4.0 with our production methods. We are the only ones in Quebec to occupy this specialized market, he specifies. The demand comes from big industry, the big contractors, who want to improve their environmental footprint. "

We have invested more than 20 million over the past five years in our three factories to be able to follow our customers in their new needs. We have taken the lead, which makes us the largest private investor in Quebec for the overhaul of aluminum scrap.

Patrick Dubé, Director of Commercial Affairs of Sotrem-Maltech

Recent awareness
The products thus recovered - and recycled - range from coffee capsules and packaging containers to aerosol sprays and even windows.

“Manufacturers ask us to incorporate recycled content with primary aluminum,” explains Patrick Dubé. We are not yet reaching the levels observed in some European countries, which can reach 80% recycled aluminum, but we are making progress. "

The director of the company, which has its head office in Chicoutimi, alludes to practices favoring the transformation of aluminum “in a context of responsible economy”. “Not so long ago,” he points out, “nobody showed interest in upgrading aluminum. But there, we realized the importance of limiting CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. It opens up new markets. "

From Saguenay to American aircraft carriers
Without fanfare, Sotrem-Maltech managed, last year, to land a "top secret" contract with an American supplier who has commercial agreements with the US Air Force. “It took us seven years of tests and analyzes before obtaining approval for our product, with cutting-edge technology,” emphasizes Patrick Dubé. We are proud of this achievement. "

This product consists of aluminum granules and powders which are used in the manufacture of an industrial paint used for coating aircraft carriers. "By virtue of its chemical composition and its degree of purity, the paint eliminates the risk of fire and provides spark arrestor protection during aircraft landing," summarizes Mr. Dubé.

It is important to remember that only two North American suppliers, including his company, have obtained the certification required for this type of application.

“It shows that it takes a certain way of doing things and that we have put in the effort to get there,” he said. We don't produce large volumes, we can speak of a very specialized, value-added market, but that gives us great credibility in the market with our customers. "



https://enterprise.press/stories/2020/10/22/int...

InterCairo Aluminium is dusting off its plans to list 30% of its shares on Egypt’s bourse

Thursday, 22 October 2020

IPO WATCH- InterCairo Aluminium Industry is dusting off its plans to list 30% of its shares on the EGX, which it had shelved back in 2016 amid market instability, Chairman Khaled Abdallah tells Al Mal in a story carried only in its print edition. Abdallah did not specify whether the company has a targeted timeline for the transaction but noted that it already earned regulatory approval from the Financial Regulatory Authority (known at the time as EFSA, and imply that the company may have some work to do updating its paperwork with the authority). The listing is part of InterCairo’s 3-5-year future expansion plan, which also includes setting up a new EGP 800 mn factory, according to Abdallah.
124674
23.10.2020 00:27
1
2020 Economic Impact of the Aluminum Industry

https://www.aluminum.org/sites/default/files/20...
https://ml.globenewswire.com/Resource/Download/...

https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020...

U.S. Aluminum Industry Employs 166,000 Americans; Drives $70 Billion in Economic Impact
Data and Modelling Show COVID-19 Disruptions Putting Downward Pressure on Industry Output, Jobs

October 22, 2020 10:12 ET | Source: Aluminum Association

ARLINGTON, VA, Oct. 22, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- A new study released today shows that the U.S. aluminum industry directly employs more than 166,000 workers. Employment declined slightly between 2018 and 2020, according to research conducted by economic research firm John Dunham & Associates. The study also found that the industry generates more than $70 billion in economic output and indirectly generates an additional $102 billion economic output. In total, the U.S. aluminum industry supports nearly 660,000 direct, indirect and induced jobs and nearly $172 billion in total economic output.

Overall employment in U.S. aluminum has held largely steady for most of the past decade though most sectors lost jobs between 2018 and 2020. These shifts were offset by an increase in jobs in the primary aluminum segment in the 2020 report, which represent about 3 percent of U.S. aluminum jobs overall.

“This report reflects an industry that has proven resilient despite numerous global trade and other challenges in recent years,” said Tom Dobbins, president & CEO of the Aluminum Association. “Like all segments of the economy, aluminum companies in the U.S. continue to grapple with the ongoing economic disruption of COVID-19 which is having a serious impact on demand and jobs.”


While the initial economic impact report was completed in March of 2020, subsequent modeling shows the impact of COVID-19 on industry jobs and economic output. The latest modeling through August 2020 suggests that direct industry jobs and economic output have likely declined about 11 percent since the study was originally completed.


The latest available data shows a topline domestic aluminum demand decline of about 19 percent year-over-year through July. Recent net new orders data for aluminum has shown some signs of improvement though orders remain off about 10 percent year-over-year through September. The model is derived using a variety of government and industry data sources to estimate changes in employment for each sector of the economy that uses aluminum as a major input. Some market segments have The Aluminum Association will periodically update the COVID impact model and the new data will be available in real time at www.aluminum.org/economy.


“Like all industries, the U.S. aluminum sector faces significant challenges but also major opportunities in the current economic environment. We are confident that consumer and company preferences for recyclable packaging material, efficient and lightweight vehicles and sustainable infrastructure will continue to drive demand for aluminum.” added Dobbins. “We look forward to working with policymakers and other industry stakeholders on issues like trade, infrastructure, energy and the environment in the years ahead.”


Today’s report is an update of a study completed in 2013, 2016 and 2018. Data from prior years’ studies have been reviewed and updated for accuracy, providing the most up-to-date and comprehensive information on the U.S. aluminum industry’s economic impact.

Other key findings in the report include:

Workers directly employed by the U.S. aluminum industry earn nearly $13 billion in wages and benefits.
Indirect and induced employment creates an additional $32 billion in wages and benefits.
When all employment supported by the industry is taken into account, these jobs generate nearly $16 billion in federal, state and local taxes.
The 2020 Economic Impact of the Aluminum Industry study was completed using standard econometric models first developed by the U.S. Forest Service and now maintained by IMPLAN, Inc. The report is based on data provided by Infogroup, the federal government and the Aluminum Association.


For the purposes of the report, the aluminum industry is defined to include alumina refining; primary aluminum smelting; secondary aluminum production; manufacturing of aluminum sheet, plate, foil, extrusions, forgings, coatings, and powder; aluminum foundries; metals service centers, and wholesalers. The study measures the number of jobs in this industry, the wages paid to employees, total economic output and federal and state business taxes generated.

The complete study, including an interactive map with economic contribution breakdowns by state and congressional district, is available at www.aluminum.org/economy.

###
124674
23.10.2020 00:54
1
https://dpi.gov.gy/jobs-are-labour-ministrys-ma...

Jobs are Labour Ministry’s main target with RUSAL -Min. Hamilton

Gavin Lewis
October 21, 2020

Minister of Labour, Hon. Joseph Hamilton has said his Ministry’s main objective is securing employment opportunities with the Bauxite Company of Guyana Incorporated (BCGI)/Russian Aluminium (RUSAL).

During an exclusive interview with DPI, Minister Hamilton disclosed that the Government advised RUSAL to outline a proposal in keeping with the country’s labour laws.

The Ministry of Natural Resources and the Guyana Geology and Mines Commission (GGMC) are currently assessing the proposal to finalise a date for the reopening of the company’s operations in the Berbice River.

Minister Hamilton explained that nearly 600 persons lost their jobs when the bauxite company suspended its operations. The company’s suspension led to its shipping company – Oldendorff Carriers Guyana Incorporated (OCGI) closing its operations.

“The most important issue for us is jobs and employment for workers,” he emphasised.

OCGI will return to operations following the reopening of RUSAL.

The Russian-led company has operated in Guyana since 2004 and has come under scrutiny several times for breaching labour practices.

RUSAL shared an unsteady relationship with the previous APNU+AFC Government and the Guyana Bauxite and General Workers Union (GB&GWU), which led to the company’s shutdown and dismissal of 326 workers who were on strike for poor working conditions and outstanding salaries and wages.

The former workers were all in favour of the bauxite company leaving Guyana.

In February, several laid off employees protested their dismissal by placing a barrier across the company’s shipping route for bauxite exports, the Berbice River.

RUSAL’s former employees ended their riverfront protest in August.

RUSAL owns 90 per cent of BCGI, and has a yearly production capacity of 2.3 million tonnes of bauxite. The remaining 10 per cent belongs to the Guyana Government. RUSAL also owns licences to develop the Linden, Kwakwani and Ituni deposit groups.
124674
23.10.2020 11:28
2
https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2020/...

Предел зеленой энергетики
Планы по сокращению господдержки ВИЭ обоснованны

Александр Фролов , заместитель гендиректора Института национальной энергетики

Альтернативная генерация в первую очередь развивается в энергодефицитных странах. Мощный толчок этому дала авария на японской атомной электростанции «Фукусима-1»: европейские зеленые развернули кампанию против мирного атома, в результате чего Германия сократила количество своих АЭС, а инвестиции в возобновляемые источники энергии (ВИЭ) полились рекой.

Не в последнюю очередь Евросоюз (ЕС) вкладывался в возобновляемую генерацию, надеясь на мультипликативный эффект. В начале 2010-х гг. ЕС был крупнейшим производителем оборудования для ВИЭ. Поэтому местные чиновники рассчитывали на резкий рост производства и занятости. Но в то же время производство оборудования наращивал Китай – более дешевого и хорошего качества. Европа пыталась вводить заградительные пошлины, но не помогло. Многие европейские предприятия в течение первых лет зеленого бума либо разорились, либо переехали в Китай. Сегодня эта страна – абсолютный чемпион и по производству оборудования для ВИЭ, и по вводу солнечных и ветровых электростанций.

Наличие собственного производства ветряков и солнечных панелей – важнейший фактор, влияющий на перспективы зеленой энергетики в стране. Европейцы действовали правильно, так как первоначально они не просто вливали деньги в новую генерацию на возобновляемых источниках, а загружали заказами свои предприятия. Но они просчитались с оценкой эффективности запускавшихся на тот момент китайских заводов.

Для России эта история важна тем, что первоначально «озеленение» нашей электрогенерации планировалось проводить на импортном оборудовании. Можно ли так делать? Безусловно. Но для нашей страны развитие возобновляемой генерации выглядело сомнительно само по себе, тем более на импортном оборудовании. Фактически это означает поддержку экономики Китая и ряда стран ЕС. Поэтому в программе развития энергетики до 2024 г. указана задача локализации производства оборудования для ВИЭ на территории России.

В отрыве от этой промышленной составляющей для нас развитие такой энергетики может преследовать две цели – обеспечение электроэнергией удаленных небольших потребителей и снижение углеродного следа продукции отечественных предприятий. Вопрос экологии вторичен, хотя для ряда охраняемых природных территорий применение ветрогенераторов и солнечных панелей может быть оправданным. Но при этом требуется помнить про необходимость резервирования традиционных мощностей, ведь ВИЭ – вещь непостоянная. Удивительно, кстати, что для ВИЭ не учитывается углеродный след таких резервных мощностей.

Необходимо помнить, что в конечном счете поддержка ВИЭ ложится на плечи потребителей: чем больше доля возобновляемой генерации, тем дороже цена электроэнергии. А, например, теплоснабжение для российских потребителей связано не только с комфортом, но с выживанием. Обогревать дом можно, конечно, и зеленым электричеством, но это будет не так эффективно и дешево, как при использовании традиционной теплоэлектростанции.

Развитие ВИЭ у нас происходит в рамках крупной программы обновления генерирующих мощностей. Реконструируются старые электростанции, строятся новые объекты, постепенно снижается удельный расход топлива на производство электрической и тепловой энергии. К началу 2020 г. установленная мощность всех электростанций объединенных энергосистем и Единой энергетической системы России превысила 246,3 ГВт. Планировалось, что к 2018 г. установленная мощность ВИЭ-электростанций на территории России достигнет 1,7 ГВт. Но этой цели достичь не удалось – к этому моменту была введена лишь половина планировавшихся мощностей, а к началу 2020 г. их объем достиг лишь 1,55 ГВт.

К 2024 г. доля установленной мощности генерации на ВИЭ в российской энергосистеме должна достичь 4,5%, но в данный момент она составляет только 0,65%. Если добавить сюда избыток генерирующих мощностей в нашей энергосистеме (что неплохо, это резерв для развития экономики), а также коронакризис, то необходимость чрезмерного спонсирования ВИЭ после 2024 г. представляется более чем сомнительной.

В связи с этим предложение МЭР о сокращении поддержки возобновляемой генерации с 2025 г. с 400 млрд до 200 млрд руб. выглядит оправданным. У нашей страны в этих мощностях нет никакой необходимости, а вопросы экологии гораздо эффективнее решаются путем модернизации имеющихся мощностей. Кстати, тот же Китай, развивая ВИЭ, не отказывается от угля, а проводит глубокую модернизацию угольных электростанций.

И если по-честному, не ударяясь в модную экологическую повестку, то выясняется, что Россия и так является одним из лидеров по доле возобновляемой генерации. Ведь гидроэлектростанции мощностью более 25 МВт, которые чисто юридически исключены из рядов зеленой генерации, занимают в структуре установленной мощности российских электростанций более 20% (почти 50 ГВт).
Пин-код
23.10.2020 14:20
 
Восстановление экономики Китая привело к росту спроса на алюминий. Благодаря этому металл сейчас торгуется вблизи своего 18-месячного максимума. Аналитик Барани Кришнан отметил, что, «несмотря на недавнее ралли, техническая картина рынка алюминия предполагает наличие потенциала роста». http://elitetrader.ru/index.php?newsid=527806
124674
23.10.2020 23:11
1
Third quarter 2020: Strong cash generation, improving markets

Hydro’s underlying EBIT for the third quarter of 2020 was NOK 1,407 million, up from NOK 1,366 million in the same quarter last year. Extruded Solutions saw improving volumes from the previous quarter and a favorable cost position. The extended maintenance at the Paragominas bauxite pipeline in Brazil is finalized, and the Alunorte alumina refinery is ramping up production.

https://www.hydro.com/en/media/news/2020/third-...

Underlying EBIT NOK 1,407 million
Strong cash generation
Markets continue recovery from Q2 lows
Extruded Solutions uEBITDA up 28% vs Q3 2019
Paragominas maintenance finalized, Alunorte ramping up to nameplate capacity
RSK value secured through Hydro-Lyse transaction
Positive developments in EU regulatory framework

https://finance.yahoo.com/news/edited-transcrip...

Edited Transcript of NHY.OL earnings conference call or presentation 23-Oct-20 6:30am GMT

https://www.reuters.com/article/norsk-hydro-res...

UPDATE 2-Aluminium maker Hydro surprises with Q3 profit jump, shares up 7%

OCTOBER 23, 20209:27 AM
By Terje Solsvik, Victoria Klesty

* Q3 operating profit NOK 1.4 bln vs forecast NOK 278 mln
* Aluminium markets recovering from H1 drubbing
* CEO aims to further boost earnings, margins
* Analyst sees ‘green shots’ for 2021 (Adds CEO quotes, shares, detail)

OSLO, Oct 23 (Reuters) - Norsk Hydro posted a surprise rise in third-quarter operating profit on Friday powered by a rebound in its extruded business, sending shares in the Norwegian aluminium maker up 7%.

Hydro’s shares hit a five-week high as analysts said the company’s outlook was improving after a fall in demand in the second quarter.

“Our priority now is to raise our earnings and margins by being well positioned as markets recover, while maintaining our cost focus so that we retain the gains we’ve made,” CEO Hilde Merete Aasheim told Reuters.

The company will expand its renewable power generation business and also ensure that more of its metals are made with such electricity, including from hydro, wind and solar power, Aasheim said.

Hydro’s extruded business, which turns slabs of metal into products for construction and other industries, saw a stronger-than-expected recovery, boosted by lower raw material costs and fixed costs, as well as currency effects, Hydro said.

“This is a strong result driven primarily by the downstream extruded business,” Credit Suisse said in a note.

“With the beat in that division on costs rather than volumes in Q3, this certainly offers green shoots for a recovery into 2021 as volumes continue to improve.”

Underlying earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) rose to 1.41 billion Norwegian crowns ($152 million) in the July to September period, from 1.37 billion crowns a year earlier.

That easily beat the 278 million crowns expected in a poll of analysts.

The result was helped by an insurance payment of 192 million crowns following a 2019 cyber attack as well as 64 million crowns in government grants.

Hydro said the global recovery from the impact of the coronavirus is reducing oversupply of aluminium, which is used in a range of products and applications such as construction, cars and soda cans.

While aluminium prices have recovered from the four-year lows hit in March, shares in Norsk Hydro are still down 14% this year, underperforming an 8% drop in Oslo’s benchmark stock market index.

$1 = 9.2730 Norwegian crowns Editing by Christian Schmollinger and Jason Neely
124674
23.10.2020 23:26
1
https://uk.reuters.com/article/china-economy-tr...

China reverts to net aluminium exporter in Sept; imports remain strong

OCTOBER 23, 202010:57 AM
By Tom Daly

* China Sept aluminium imports up 642% y/y at 356,000 T - customs
* Country was net importer in July, Aug for 1st time since 2009
* Inflows set to fall sharply from Nov after arb closed - analyst

Oct 23 (Reuters) - China reverted to being a net aluminium exporter in September, official data showed on Friday, as the price gap between foreign and domestic metal narrowed, making shipments from overseas more expensive and reducing import volumes.

The world’s top aluminium producing country imported 355,999 tonnes of unwrought aluminium and aluminium products last month, the General Administration of Customs said. That compared with exports of 426,469 tonnes.

September imports rose 642% from a year earlier but were down 17.1% from 429,464 tonnes in August, which was a more than 11-year high and the second-biggest monthly volume China has ever imported.

China usually has scant need for foreign aluminium. But its rapid economic recovery from the coronavirus pandemic, compared with the rest of the world, saw the spread between Shanghai and London cash aluminium prices balloon in May, opening up an arbitrage opportunity for cheaper imports.

The window closed in August, but metal booked when it was open has continued to flow in.

China, which was a net aluminium importer in July and August, brought in 1.177 million tonnes in the third quarter overall, according to Reuters calculations, slightly less than exports of 1.195 million tonnes.

CRU analyst Wan Ling estimated that at least 150,000 tonnes of the September imports could be primary aluminium.

“Import volumes will be down significantly from November,” even though the arb opened slightly in late September and early October, she added.

In the first nine months of 2020, imports totalled 1.99 million tonnes, customs said.

That was up 381.1% year-on-year and within striking distance of the record 2.32 million tonnes imported in the whole of 2009, when the global financial crisis opened a similar arbitrage and China was a net aluminium importer on a full-year basis.

Customs is due to release a breakdown of imports by origin and type of aluminium and other commodities on Sunday.

(Reporting by Tom Daly; Editing by Christian Schmollinger)
124674
23.10.2020 23:34
 
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wat...

It's the product not the polymer: Rethinking plastic pollution

Thomas Stanton Paul Kay Matthew Johnson Faith Ka Shun Chan Rachel L. Gomes Jennifer Hughes William Meredith Harriet G. Orr Colin E. Snape Mark Taylor Jason Weeks Harvey Wood Yuyao Xu
First published: 22 October 2020 https://doi.org/10.1002/wat2.1490
Funding information: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 41850410497; UK Research and Innovation, Grant/Award Number: UKRI 2019‐20 QR; University of Nottingham Ningbo China

Abstract
Mismanaged plastic waste poses a complex threat to the environments that it contaminates, generating considerable concern from academia, industry, politicians, and the general public. This concern has driven global action that presents a unique opportunity for widespread environmental engagement beyond the immediate problem of the persistence of plastic in the environment. But for such an opportunity to be realized, it is vital that the realities of plastic waste are not misrepresented or exaggerated. Hotspots of plastic pollution, which are often international in their source, present complex environmental problems in certain parts of the world. Here we argue, however, that the current discourse on plastic waste overshadows greater threats to the environment and society at a global scale. Antiplastic sentiments have been exploited by politicians and industry, where reducing consumers' plastic footprints are often confused by the seldom‐challenged veil of environmental consumerism, or “greenwashing.” Plastic is integral to much of modern day life, and regularly represents the greener facilitator of society's consumption. We conclude that it is the product, not the polymer that is driving the issue of plastic waste. Contemporary consumption and disposal practices are the root of much of the anthropogenic waste in the environment, plastic, or not. Effective environmental action to minimize plastic in the environment should be motivated by changes in consumption practices, policies, and product design, and should be informed by objective science and legislation.



https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-10...

War on plastic is distracting from more urgent threats to environment, experts warn

23-OCT-2020
UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM

A team of leading environmental experts, spearheaded by the University of Nottingham, have warned that the current war on plastic is detracting from the bigger threats to the environment.

In an article published in the peer-reviewed scientific journal, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews (WIREs) Water, the 13 experts* say that while plastic waste is an issue, its prominence in the general public's concern for the environment is overshadowing greater threats, for example, climate change and biodiversity loss.

The interdisciplinary team argue that much of the discourse around plastic waste is based on data that is not always representative of the environments that have been sampled. The aversion to plastic associated with this could encourage the use of alternative materials with potentially greater harmful effects.

The authors warn that plastic pollution dominates the public's concern for the environment and has been exploited politically, after capturing the attention of the world, for example through emotive imagery of wildlife caught in plastic waste and alarmist headlines. They say small political gestures such as legislation banning cosmetic microplastics, taxing plastic bags, and financial incentives for using reusable containers, as well as the promotion of products as 'green' for containing less plastic than alternatives, risks instilling a complacency in society towards other environmental problems that are not as tangible as plastic pollution.

The article's authors call on the media and others to ensure that the realities of plastic pollution are not misrepresented, particularly in the public dissemination of the issue, and urges government to minimise the environmental impact of over-consumption, however inconvenient, through product design, truly circular waste-management, and considered rather than reactionary policy.

Dr Tom Stanton, a co-author who led the work while in the University of Nottingham's School of Geography and Food, Water, Waste Research Group, said: "We are seeing unprecedented engagement with environmental issues, particularly plastic pollution, from the public and we believe this presents a once in a generation opportunity to promote other, potentially greater environmental issues.

"This is a key moment in which to highlight and address areas such as 'throw-away' culture in society and overhaul waste management. However, if there is a continuation in prioritising plastic, this opportunity will be missed - and at great cost to our environment."

The article also highlights that plastics are not the only type of polluting material originating from human activity that contaminates the environment. Other examples include natural textile fibres such as cotton and wool, Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles (remnants of fossil fuels), and brake-wear particles from vehicles - all of which are present in different places, where they may have adverse environmental effects. The authors note that these materials are often much more abundant than microplastics and some, such as glass, aluminium, paper, and natural fibres, are associated with 'plastic alternatives' that are marketed as solutions to plastic pollution, but in reality side-step the inconvenience of changing the consumption practices at the root of the problem. The eco-toxicological impacts of some of these materials are less well known than plastic and microplastic pollution, yet they could have significant impacts.

The authors conclude that that a behavioural science approach should be taken to assess society's relationship with single-use items and throw-away culture, and to overhaul waste mismanagement.

They say there is an understandable desire to minimise the global plastic debris in the environment which should not be discouraged, but positive action to minimise plastic pollution needs to be well informed and should not exacerbate or overshadow other forms of environmental degradation associated with alternative materials.

The article states that solutions are likely to come from a greater focus on designing materials and products that can be recycled, that have their end-of-life built in, and that markets and facilities exist to recycle all plastic waste.
124674
23.10.2020 23:48
1
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https://www.spglobal.com/marketintelligence/en/...

How the US election could still turn the tide for global climate action

22 Oct, 2020
Author Yannic Rack

In late 2019, when President Donald Trump formally requested to pull the U.S. out of the Paris Agreement on climate change, a technical quirk of the process meant the date of withdrawal would be doubly significant: Nov. 4, 2020, the day after a presidential election that, among many other things, has shown the two candidates deeply divided on climate change.

Less than a year later, China made a surprise announcement in late September to significantly scale up its ambition and target net-zero emissions by 2060 — a stark contrast to the Trump administration and, to many, the latest sign that countries are moving ahead on climate action even without American leadership on the issue.

But now, weeks before voters head to the polls, current and former negotiators in international climate talks say a Biden administration that rejoins the Paris climate accord and makes fighting climate change a priority both at home and abroad — as the Democratic presidential nominee and former vice president has promised — could still turn the tide in the monumental effort to prevent the worst effects of global warming.

"It would be huge, because these processes require leadership and the deployment of coordinated power," said James Cameron, a lawyer who helped negotiate the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, or UNFCCC, and advises the U.K. on its presidency of the upcoming COP26 climate summit in 2021. The formal name of the summit is the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC.

Rather than writing off the U.S. as a partner after four years of a president who has called climate change a hoax, Cameron and others believe that getting Washington involved again could speed up movement on a host of issues that remain to be worked out in the complex framework of the talks, such as international climate finance and rules for carbon trading.

And aside from driving down the nation's own emissions, renewed U.S. engagement on the issue could also help rally other countries that are still dragging their feet when it comes to carbon reductions and mobilize market forces that would help speed up the transition to a cleaner economy around the world.

"It's not that we can't act without the U.S. But we just can act much more effectively with the U.S.," Cameron said.

The result of the U.S. election is primarily set to have wide-ranging impacts on domestic policy, with a Democratic win promising stronger action on climate change and clean energy, based on both Joe Biden's coronavirus recovery plan and the more progressive climate platform recently adopted by the Democratic Party.

China is currently the largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world, but the U.S. remains by far the largest cumulative contributor to global warming of any one country to date.

Some experts believe that even a changing of the guard in both the U.S. Senate and the White House is not guaranteed to drive sweeping climate legislation at home, since the administration could be tempted to focus more on broader economic recovery. But there is hope that the U.S. would at least become a guiding force on the international stage once more.

"It was really under the Obama administration, going all the way back to 2008, that the U.S. really became engaged and started a lot of bilateral work, with China and India in particular ... Without them, I don't think we would have the Paris Agreement," said Carlos Fuller, the lead negotiator on climate change for the Alliance of Small Island States, a coalition of 44 developing countries that have pooled their resources to gain a louder voice in climate talks.

Under Biden, "I certainly believe we would see a shift, where they would again become a major player," Fuller said.

Work to be done

With the White House in retreat, the EU has stepped up to take a leading role on international climate action over the past four years. The bloc is close to agreeing on a binding goal to reduce its own emissions to net zero by 2050, including a higher interim target for 2030.

Its political leaders also took credit for nudging China toward its net-zero target, which was widely seen as a pointed rebuke of U.S. policy and a well-calculated move by Beijing to position itself as a more reliable partner on environmental issues. Charles Michel, the president of the European Council, said in a speech that the EU had "firmly conveyed" its message on the issue at a summit with China President Xi Jinping days before the announcement and called the 2060 target "a real diplomatic success."

The U.K., which has also committed to net-zero emissions, is now trying to get more countries to set higher targets as the organizer of next year's climate summit in Glasgow.

Alok Sharma, the country's secretary of state for business, energy and industrial strategy, told a House of Lords committee in September that diplomats are engaged in pre-negotiations on Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which covers rules for global carbon trading and other forms of cooperation and has remained unresolved since the rest of the Paris accord was adopted in late 2018.

"If the U.S. had been there, exerting its considerable political and economic pressure ... I think we would have seen more results [at 2019's COP25 summit] in Madrid," Fuller said. "That could have done it."

Money for countries with lower GDPs also remains a sticking point, partly as a result of Trump's refusal to keep contributing to the Green Climate Fund, a vehicle set up by the UNFCCC to fulfill a pledge by countries with higher GDPs to raise $100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020. Other contributors have so far failed to make up the hole left by the U.S.

"We need the financing necessary to address mitigation and adaptation. That certainly has put a souring note on many of the negotiations," Fuller said. "There's still a lot of significant work to be done."

In the meantime, though providing more time for consensus-building, the delay of the summit because of the coronavirus has also increased pressure to show results on all fronts, according to Sharma.

"The issues are the same [and] I would argue that, because we have somewhat longer, there are raised expectations. People want us to come forward with more progress," he said.

'Bailing out a liner with a single bucket'

Although negotiators say the U.S. could help untangle those technical discussions, its most crucial contribution might come from simply returning to the table.

U.S. states and cities, alongside a broad range of businesses, have picked up the baton through climate action groups such as We Are Still In or the U.S. Climate Alliance. Together with changing energy economics, that has meant the country has continued to decrease its emissions even in the face of environmental rollbacks at a federal level. But subnational action can hardly replace the influence a White House delegation wields at climate talks, especially when it comes to pressuring other actors.

"The kind of leadership that the U.S. can bring in its better moments is essential," said Paul Bodnar, who was senior director for energy and climate change at the National Security Council under former President Barack Obama and helped draw up a historic climate agreement between the U.S. and China that paved the way for the Paris accord.

Some observers believe other countries have simply been waiting out the election to see which way the tide will turn. All signatories to the Paris Agreement are supposed to update their pledges for emissions cuts before the end of the year, although many are expected to miss the deadline. But a Biden administration with a more ambitious U.S. target could help extract similar commitments from other major emitters like India, Japan, Australia and Brazil before COP26 in 2021.

"The U.S. has provided an excuse for many parties to sit on the sidelines and keep their ambition low," said John Morton, who succeeded Bodnar at the White House during Obama's second term and is now a partner at Pollination, a specialist climate change advisory and investment firm, and a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council.

U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson, while addressing a U.N. roundtable in September, said the U.K. cannot convince the rest of the world to act on its own. Johnson will co-host an event in mid-December to mark the five-year anniversary of the Paris Agreement, giving world leaders an opportunity to announce new net-zero targets.

"The U.K. will lead by example, keeping the environment on the global agenda and serving as a launch pad for a global green industrial revolution. But no one country can turn the tide — it would be akin to bailing out a liner with a single bucket," Johnson said.

And although the EU's engagement with China and others on climate action is widely acknowledged, there are perceived limits to Brussels' diplomacy.

"The EU is a complicated machine. It is inherently more difficult to be nimble on the international stage if you're dealing with so many member states to coordinate," said Bodnar, who is now a managing director at the Rocky Mountain Institute. China, on the other hand, is still finding its way toward the kind of "muscular positive leadership" that the issue requires, he added.

The European Commission, the EU's executive arm, declined to make an official available for an interview. A spokesperson said the commission continues "to work intensively through all available channels with our partners around the world to share our plans and to encourage them to raise ambition, too."

Market mover

A pivot to more aggressive climate action at a federal level could also have far-reaching effects outside the framework of the COP. Former participants say a recommitment to the Paris Agreement could also make the country's economy a greater engine of decarbonization domestically, by spurring on technological innovation, green finance and emerging business models, as well as influencing corporate decision-making and even consumer preference. Development finance and trade deals could then help carry that shift abroad.

"These are market catalysts that transcend borders. And it's these things ... that have a track record of driving rapid, broad and deep change in the global economy," Bodnar said.

Lord Greg Barker, who was a minister of state for energy and climate change under former U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron, has also said the biggest positive role the U.S. can play is getting the private sector to continue to invest and innovate.

"We're clearly better with American leadership on this agenda," Barker, now executive chairman of Anglo-Russian energy and metals giant En+ Group IPJSC, said on a webinar as part of NYC Climate Week in September. "In order to really [succeed], We need the U.S. right there, shoulder to shoulder, with the rest of the world."

Viewed from another angle, the U.S. staying on the side lines could also start to bring more noticeable consequences at home as the rest of the world continues to move forward, driven by the economic benefits of climate action. Nikkei Asia reported Oct. 21 that Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga will announce a net-zero target for 2050 in his first policy speech to lawmakers at the end of October. That would add another big emitter to the list of countries moving forward without the U.S. on board.

Some have also highlighted the risk of falling further behind China in areas such as clean energy manufacturing, and Morton pointed to a proposal by the European Commission to study a carbon border adjustment mechanism, which would tax emissions-intensive imports into the EU and has already been endorsed by the International Monetary Fund.

"It's a signal to the U.S. and others that are watching that you can't really sit this game out any longer," he said. "There'll be pressure on the pocketbook."

'Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde'

Even if Biden should win the election, there are other difficulties on the horizon.

Bodnar said the Paris framework has survived one of the most difficult challenges imaginable in the exit of one of its key architects, but also noted that a U.S. negotiating team will face a large trust deficit if and when it returns to the table — just as Obama's did before the COP15 summit in Copenhagen in 2009. George W. Bush had withdrawn the U.S. from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the predecessor of the Paris Agreement.

"In the early years, we were still digging ourselves out of the hole that the previous administration had dug for us. It was not an instant pivot to a happy collaborative atmosphere," Bodnar said. "The U.S. is like Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. When we are the good Dr. Jekyll, then we are working with the international community to build structures that will survive us when we turn into Mr. Hyde."

With climate change becoming more urgent, Bodnar said there is now less time to rebuild that trust and he is hopeful other countries would set aside the "emotional baggage" to focus on the task at hand. "What other option do we have?" he said.

In the meantime, for a lot of countries that are still part of the conversation, the question of who wins the Nov. 3 election has taken on existential proportions in the face of more frequent and devastating floods, storms and droughts around the world.

"For us, cutting emissions by 50% by 2030 is absolutely essential if we want to meet that [1.5 degrees C] target" and avoid the worst effects of global warming, said Fuller, of the Alliance of Small Island States. Another four years of Trump, he added, would make getting there much harder.

"It would mean other countries would have to redouble their efforts," he said.
124674
23.10.2020 23:58
 
From Bauxite to Alumina to Aluminum

Malvern Panalytical
Mar 12, 2020

https://youtu.be/BsYbmp95Knk

Check bauxite for available alumina and impurities to minimize the use of reagents and energy in down-stream processing. Save energy costs by fast and accurate control of the bath parameters and bath conditions.

http://www.malvernpanalytical.com/mining
124674
24.10.2020 00:00
0
Ship unloader in port of Aughinish, Ireland by thyssenkrupp

thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions
Dec 15, 2017

https://youtu.be/3go49frGdnw

thyssenkrupp grabtype ship unloader for Bauxite in Aughinish, Ireland.
124674
25.10.2020 09:22
 
https://www.01net.com/actualites/pourra-t-on-un...

Will we one day be able to make a smartphone with completely recycled metals?

10/24/2020 at 4:12 p.m.
Amelie CHARNAY

Mining, with its share of pollution and social exploitation, is not inevitable for our smartphones. The use of non-mining metals is starting to grow through recycling.

Don't be fooled by the plastic shell or the glass screen of your smartphone: there is metal all over your smartphone. Gold, carbon, tantalum, copper, tin, our devices contain between 40 and 60% of metals, according to the German environmental research institute Oeko. However, these materials come almost exclusively from mining, the environmental and social impact of which is extremely high.

The ideal would be to one day manage to recover all the metals from old equipment to produce non-mining raw materials for our smartphones. Where are the manufacturers in this area?

What are the builders doing?

For now, manufacturers have focused on the easiest: using recycled plastic. This is the case with Fairphone. The manufacturer of fair trade smartphones has the merit of using 40% recycled plastic in its Fairphone 3+ . Regarding metals, it guarantees a supply outside the conflict zone, which is already a real step forward. But it does not yet use recycled metals.

Samsung is also increasingly using recycled plastic, which is processed at its center in Asan, South Korea. It has also attacked steel, copper or aluminum recovered from its household products and computer devices. But for the moment, the reuse in its smartphones is limited: a little copper for the cabling, for example, or cobalt for the batteries. It is ultimately Apple that seems to go the furthest.

Apple uses recycled rare earths

During their hearing this week by senators, representatives of Apple France recalled the ambitions of the brand in this area.
"Our goal is to one day manufacture products using only recycled or renewable materials (..) We clearly want to eliminate our dependence on mining," said Clément Lelong, head of environmental initiatives at Apple. for Europe, India and the Middle East.

To achieve this, the brand must transform its supply chain from a linear to circular model. "We have identified a list of 14 priority materials," added the spokesperson. Apple already uses recycled tin for soldering motherboards in 23 products. And the iPhone 11 and 12's Taptic engine is made from recycled rare earths.

It is in the interest of manufacturers to resort more and more to recycled metals because this will reduce their dependence on supply sources whose prices and opening fluctuate. So why is this practice not further developed?

A delicate operation but not impossible

Recycling metals from a smartphone is not easy. If we take the case of a wind turbine, its surface area is large and its composition simple: it is relatively easy to recycle. But the smartphone is an extremely compact object with a strong interweaving of its different elements. If it is not reusable, it is dismantled at the end of its life. Its most polluting elements like the battery are removed and its components are generally crushed. At the end of the day, there are different processes for separating the metals within these aggregates.

Serge Kimbel is an electronic waste recycling specialist. His company Morphosis processes most of the smartphones collected in France. More recently, he created another circular economy company, WEEEcycling, to offer manufacturers the opportunity to extract metals from their end-of-life products and to re-use them as raw materials.

Of course, it is not easy to separate the metals so that they reach a satisfactory state of purity. “No metal is easy to recycle because they are all combined with each other. But nothing is technically impossible. We arrive at degrees of purity which are of the order of 99.99% ” , assures the CEO. The main obstacles lie elsewhere.

Profitability is the main problem

If we take the case of rare earths, they are mixed together in the ores and need to be separated using complex and extremely polluting processes. For Michel Latroche, director of researcher at the CNRS at the Paris-Est Institute of Chemistry and Materials, their recycling could represent a promising solution, while chemistry has not yet succeeded in developing substitute materials. “We could create a real Western production of rare earths based on recovery. Japanese manufacturers have already succeeded in recycling permanent magnets such as those present in our hard drives, or even nickel-metal-hydride batteries, ”he tells us.

However, it is necessary to guarantee that these new processes are themselves environmentally friendly. Moreover, the question of their profitability is crucial to ensure the sustainability of the sectors. However, it is difficult to predict the evolution of the market. The example of the Belgian group Solvay, which had to close rare earth recycling workshops in La Rochelle and Saint-Fons in 2016, is still in everyone's mind. “They had succeeded in separating and purifying rare earths in low consumption light bulbs, in a context of crisis where China had reduced its export quotas and caused pressure on prices. But exports picked up and prices started to fall again. The replacement of fluorescence lamps by LEDs condemned the profitability of their solution ”, explains Michel Latroche again.

There are few refiners in Europe

The more complex the technical process for recovering the metal, the more expensive it may be. And this cannot be reflected in the tariff. “In the end, we are all subject to the same market prices. You cannot sell your recycled metal more expensive, ” observes Serge Kimbel.

The economic equilibrium is therefore not easy to find. Public aid to these sectors therefore appears essential for them to develop, as a Senate report on the subject already underlined in 2016. An Urban Mines chair was created at Paris Tech in particular to support research on the valuation of Electrical and Electronic Waste. But, currently, only a handful of companies are able to purify the metal in Europe like WEEEcycling does. There are three major refiners on the continent: Boliden in Sweden, Aurubis in Germany and Umicore in Belgium. They are all also ... mining producers.

Concentration of metals decreases

Second obstacle, the concentration of metals tends to decrease in our devices, either under the effect of the miniaturization efforts of the manufacturers, or because the manufacturing techniques are optimized.
“For certain metals such as platinoids which are among the most profitable, we will find 30 grams per tonne. These are really low quantities, ” emphasizes Serge Kimbel. Sufficient metal must be harvested so that the yields are the greatest possible and not generate losses.

To compensate for this lack, we will have to massify the collection of all electronic devices. It is also necessary to educate users about recycling because they still too often leave old smartphones to sleep in drawers. These are real unexploited deposits which are, in addition, carriers of toxicity if they are not treated. The file is progressing, since operators are now required to systematize collection in their shops and awareness campaigns will multiply.

Renew your smartphone less often

As consumers become more demanding on the source of materials, they may also be inclined tomorrow to pay more for a smartphone containing non-mining metals.

But is a smartphone made with completely recycled metals really possible? “The 100% non-mining will be difficult to achieve because there will always be traces not sourced. But one day we can imagine that 80% of the metals in a smartphone will come from non-mine production ”, Serge Kimbel begins to dream.

Remember, however, that the production of metals from recovered materials will not be enough to limit the impact of our smartphones on the planet. Quite simply because metals are not necessarily infinitely recyclable and this operation mobilizes energies that emit greenhouse gases, whether during transport or processing. The priority therefore remains to design more durable smartphones for manufacturers and to keep them as long as possible for users.



The environmental and social cost of smartphones

Remember that 80% of the energy bill of a smartphone occurs at the time of manufacture. If the mining origin of the metals of our smartphones is so controversial, it is because it participates in the depletion of resources, the destruction of ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions, and social exploitation. and economic of populations. Minerals are not systematically absent from Western countries, but they are little exploited there for reasons of cost and pollution. The main supplier countries of raw materials are therefore concentrated in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Let us quote the case of China for the neodymium of the magnets, of Indonesia for the tin of the solders, of Chile, Argentina and Bolivia for the lithium of the batteries, of the Democratic Republic of Congo for the cobalt and coltan for batteries and capacitors, from Ghana, Brazil and French Guyana for gold, tantalum, copper, bauxite and manganese.



What metals are present in our smartphones?

Manufacturers do not communicate easily on the subject. But a few large studies refer. Starting with that of the German Environmental Research Institute Oeko which dates from 2016 or the Coumpound Interest website which dates back to 2014.

Copper is most present in quantity
A smartphone would contain between 30 and 50% of plastics and synthetics, 10 to 20% of glass and ceramics and 40 to 60% of metals.

In quantity, the star metal is undoubtedly copper. Metals Ferrous and nonferrous constitute 80 to 85% of metals smartphone. There are also aluminum, zinc, tin, chromium or nickel. Then there are the precious metals of the gold, silver, platinum or palladium type which represents 0.5% of the total. Present in tiny doses, let us point out the rare earths , the best known of which are ytrium, gallum, tungsten or tantalum. And finally, the rest (15 to 20%), includes carbon, cobalt or lithium.

About fifty metals in a smartphone
Metals are found almost everywhere in your smartphone. The French association Engineers Without Borders has produced an interactive tool to discover them. Its overview is impressive since there are about fifty of them.

- in the screen , we find aluminum, silicon, indium and tin, without which it could not be tactile. Rare earths are there to help display colors.

- the battery is unsurprisingly based on lithium-ion and most often cobalt. Everything is housed in an aluminum case.

- the electronic circuit and the components are full of metals. The chip is made of pure silicon, associated with other elements such as phosphorus, indium or gallium. The components and the connections make a lot of copper, a little gold and silver. But also tantalum which is the main component of micro-capacitors. More and more soldering is done with a combination of tin, copper and silver to avoid the need for lead.

- finally, the case is made of plastic or metal and sometimes a mixture of both. It can be a metal alloy with magnesium, while the plastic casings will have a carbon base with bromine type flame retardants.


Sources: Oeko , Compound, Interest , Engineers without Borders , the ADEME , the report of the Senate, the hearing of representatives of Apple in the Senate, Samsung
https://www.oeko.de/fileadmin/oekodoc/Resource_...
http://www.compoundchem.com/2014/02/19/the-chem...
https://www.systext.org/sites/all/animationreve...
https://www.ademe.fr/impacts-smartphone
https://www.senat.fr/notice-rapport/2015/r15-85...
http://videos.senat.fr/video.1774175_5f8e12a27d...
https://www.samsung.com/n_africa/aboutsamsung/s...
124674
25.10.2020 10:15
 
https://www.voestalpine.com/group/en/group/over...

With the creation of twelve centers of excellence
in the Metal Forming Division, R&D structures
were comprehensively redefined and reorganized
accordingly. The primary focus in this division is
on innovative lightweight structures. This segment
includes the forming and further processing of
materials such as press-hardening steel, steel
hybrid composites or aluminum into components
and systems with the goal to maximize customer
benefit by combining best-suited materials. Another priority for the division is the development
of innovative, sophisticated profiles and pipes
made from high-strength steel combined with
metal coatings and plastic film or steel-plastic
composites.
124674
25.10.2020 10:15
 
https://scholarshipdb.net/scholarships-in-Norwa...

PhD candidate: environmental sustainability analysis and circular economy in silicon metallurgy

Deadline:24 Oct 2020

This is NTNU
At NTNU, creating knowledge for a better world is the vision that unites our 7 400 employees and 42 000 students.
We are looking for dedicated employees to join us.
You will find more information about working at NTNU and the application process here.

About the position

The Industrial Ecology Program (IndEcol ), Department of Energy and Process Engineering is seeking a PhD student to address life cycle assessment and circular economy in silicon process metallurgy. The position is of 3.5 years duration, including 6 months for teaching duties.

The PhD candidate will support our research in sustainable metallurgy, specifically our participation in the H2020 SisAl Pilot project: Innovative pilot for silicon production with low environmental impact using secondary aluminium and silicon raw materials (2020-2024) . Carbothermic reduction is used in many metal processes, including in the reduction of quartz to silicon (Si) metal. SisAl Pilot considers replacement of conventional carbothermic with aluminothermic reduction using aluminium slags, dross and secondary metal fractions to increase Si yield, minimize direct emissions, and provide a range of Si, aluminium and alumina products.


Metal value chains are important to global carbon emissions and material flows, and primary metal production dominates life cycle impacts of many product systems. Development of sustainable metallurgy requires an understanding of the links between metallurgy process design, the value chains they involve, and the environmental impacts attached to these. Gaps remain in knowledge transfer across the domains of process metallurgy and environmental sustainability assessment.

IndEcol is a well-established interdisciplinary group in the field of environmental sustainability analysis. Researchers at IndEcol participate in international expert groups, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Resource Panel (IRP), as well as international collaborative projects.

The Head of Department is Professor Terese Løvås. The position’s supervisor is Associate Professor Johan Berg Pettersen, the co-supervisor is Professor Daniel Müller.



Further information
This position is funded by the European Union Horizon 2020: SisAl Pilot project: Innovative pilot for silicon production with low environmental impact using secondary aluminium and silicon raw materials (2020-2024). Grant agreement ID: 869268.
124674
25.10.2020 10:26
 
https://www.latribune.ca/actualites/le-fil-grou...

Blanchet offers a sector fund for the transformation of aluminum

September 2, 2020 8:28 P.M.
Updated at 22:53
Myriam Gauthier

The leader of the Bloc Québécois, Yves-François Blanchet, proposes that Ottawa create a sector fund to support secondary and tertiary aluminum processing projects.


https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-10...

Vedanta Pays $476 Million Dividend Before Potential Downgrade

By Swansy Afonso
October 25, 2020, 1:27 AM GMT+3

Moody’s put Vedanta Resources’s credit rating under review
Vedanta’s zinc unit doled out $1.2 billion dividend Tuesday


https://seanews.co.uk/features/dry-bulk-segment...

Dry Bulk Segment, An Outlook for 2021

By Baibhav Mishra -October 23, 2020


https://www.business-standard.com/article/compa...

Hindalco turns environment-harming product into a money-minting resource
The aluminium maker's breakthrough in regenerating red mud for the construction industry addresses a serious environmental concern

Kunal Bose | Kolkata
Last Updated at October 23, 2020 06:10 IST


https://www.newswise.com/articles/new-study-the...

New study the first to link plastic ingestion and dietary metals in seabirds

23-Oct-2020 8:20 AM EDT, by University of South Australia


https://menafn.com/1101004103/Qatar-Qamco-posts...

Qatar- Qamco posts nine-month net profit of QR12.3mn

10/22/2020 11:17:43 PM


https://www.letsrecycle.com/news/latest-news/pa...

PackFlow finds recycling targets ‘achievable’

23 OCTOBER 2020
by Steve Eminton

Packaging waste recycling and recovery targets for 2020 through to 2022 are “broadly achievable” according to updated PackFlow reports published this week.


https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/transport/why-...

Why building an electric car is so expensive, for now

FRI, OCT 23, 2020 - 11:13 AM


https://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/clo...

A second life for plastic waste

By Sonia Fernandez, UC Santa Barbara
Friday, October 23, 2020


https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhuban...

Aluminium park in Angul to be ready by March 2021: Govt

Sujit kumar bisoyi
Oct 24, 2020, 16:42 IST


https://investor.id/lifestyle/danoneaqua-dan-ip...

Danone-Aqua and IPB Innovation in Utilizing Plastic Waste with Infiltration Wells

Saturday, October 24, 2020 | 18:14 WIB Ridho Syukra


https://www.agenciainfra.com/blog/governo-se-co...

Government undertakes to change terminal project in Vila do Conde that affects UTE

Dimmi Amora

The federal government has committed itself to changing the proposal presented in the feasibility studies for
the bidding of two port terminals in Vila do Conde (PA), the VCD10 and VCD10A, intended for the handling of
mineral and liquid bulk. The terminals are part of the port complex of the aluminum chain in the region and
would be in conict with areas already tendered for the implementation of a thermoelectric plant with
estimated investments of R $ 1.6 billion.
Второй_эшелон
26.10.2020 07:50
 
Новые пикниковые зоны обустроили на Большой Байкальской тропе

26 октября 12:31


На Большой Байкальской тропе обустроили две новые пикниковые зоны. С мая до середины октября Ассоциация «Большая Байкальская тропа» и компания En+ Group в нескольких местах также расширили и укрепили тропу, установили километровые столбики и информационные стенды.

Пикниковые площадки волонтеры построили на мысе Соболев и в пади Емельяниха, сообщает пресс-служба компании En+ Group. Стоянки оборудованы костровыми местами, лавками, столом, дровяником и навесом. Падь Емельяниха выбрана как удобная площадка с выходом к воде для остановки туристов, которые идут по южной части тропы. На мысе Соболев — ровная площадка с красивым пейзажем: на ней смогут найти место для ночлега туристы, идущие от Большого Голоустного в Большие Коты или обратно.

https://www.irk.ru/news/20201026/trail/
Второй_эшелон
26.10.2020 07:51
 
20.10.2020 в 17:22

En+ Group и РУСАЛ подводят итоги конкурса «Лучший лыжный тренер года»

Москва, 20 октября 2020 года – En+ Group и РУСАЛ
объявляют итоги второго традиционного конкурса «Лучший лыжный тренер года». Конкурс проводился с 14 сентября по 9 октября 2020 года в рамках проекта «На лыжи!».

Цель конкурса – выявление лучших тренеров по лыжным гонкам по результатам спортивной работы в предыдущем зимнем сезоне и поощрение их стипендиями. В конкурсе приняли участие лыжные тренеры из 18 городов в 5 регионах России, где реализуется проект «На лыжи!»: в Иркутской и Кемеровской областях, Красноярском крае, республиках Хакасия и Коми.

Конкурс проводился в два этапа. На первом шёл приём заявок соискателей в региональных федерациях лыжных гонок. Каждый регион отправил организаторам конкурса список кандидатов, отобранных согласно критериям, указанным в положении о конкурсе.

На втором этапе экспертный совет во главе с президентом Федерации лыжных гонок России Еленой Вяльбе определил по одному победителю от каждого региона.

https://kamensk-uralskiy.ru/news/novosti_predpr...
Второй_эшелон
26.10.2020 07:53
1
Компания En+ реализует льготную жилищную программу

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9vR3aa7x6M
Второй_эшелон
27.10.2020 07:24
 
27.10.2020 04:13:37

«Русал» в третьем квартале увеличил производство алюминия на 1,3% - отчет


«Русал» в третьем квартале текущего года произвел 939 тыс. тонн алюминия - на 1,3% больше по сравнению со вторым кварталом. Об этом говорится в отчете об операционных результатах компании, распространенном во вторник на Гонконгской фондовой бирже.

«Производство алюминия в третьем квартале 2020 года составило 939 тыс. тонн (рост на 1,3% в квартальном исчислении). При этом на сибирские заводы пришлось 93% от общего объема выпуска», - отмечается в документе.
За первые 9 месяцев года данный показатель практически не изменился и составил 2,805 млн тонн (-0,1%).

https://www.finanz.ru/novosti/aktsii/rusal-v-tr...
Второй_эшелон
27.10.2020 07:38
 
26.10.2020 19:58:47

«Русал» разделяет осторожный подход к выплате дивидендов «Норникеля» в текущей ситуации


«Русал», второй крупнейший акционер «Норникеля», разделяет осторожный подход к выплате дивидендов «Норникеля» в текущей ситуации и считает, что выплата дивидендов по минимальному уровню поддержит рыночную котировку бумаг ГМК. Об этом сообщил ТАСС заместитель гендиректора «Русала» Максим Полетаев.

«В текущей ситуации мы разделяем осторожный подход. Это решение поддержит рыночную котировку бумаг компании ["Норникель"]», - сообщил он.
Ранее крупнейший акционер и глава «Норникеля» Владимир Потанин предложил ограничить дивиденды компании в 2020 году минимальным уровнем из-за влияния пандемии коронавируса и финансовых последствий разлива дизтоплива на ТЭЦ-3 в Норильске.

Общая сумма дивидендов «Норникеля» за 2019 год с учетом промежуточных составила 4,8 млрд долларов.

Дивидендная политика «Норникеля» предполагает выплаты, исходя из плавающей ставки, рассчитанной как доля EBITDA, привязанная к уровню задолженности. Дивиденды составят 30% EBITDA, если соотношение уровня чистого долга к EBITDA на конец соответствующего года будет более 2,2х. Если соотношение будет менее 1,8х, то выплаты могут увеличиться до 60% EBITDA. При этом минимальный уровень дивидендов до 2022 г. установлен в размере 1 млрд долларов.

https://www.finanz.ru/novosti/aktsii/rusal-razd...
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